A March 2019 study published in Psychopharmacology tested the sub-acute and long-term effects of one inhalation of dried secretions from the toad Bufo alvarius containing 5-MeO-DMT. Although this study had significant limitations (see related PSR article), the participants experienced enhanced life satisfaction and convergent thinking right after dosing which was maintained to the 4-week follow up. Increased ratings of mindfulness along with decreased anxiety, depression, and stress were seen after dosing. These effects increased over time and reached statistical significance at four weeks. Lower ratings of stress and depression and higher life satisfaction scores correlated with high levels of ego dissolution or oceanic boundlessness after dosing.