The synthesis method represents the first meaningful access to these compounds for scientific research.
This is the first scientific evidence that anything but psilocybin or psilocin could potentially contribute to the pharmacology of magic mushrooms.
Baeocystin did not cause the head twitch response in mice, meaning it does not activate the 5-HT2A receptor.
Tetrahydrocannabiphorol could account for the pharmacological properties of some cannabis varieties.
The authors say this work is “a significant step towards demonstrating the feasibility of industrial production of biologically-derived psilocybin.”
This study is focusing on the effects of psychedelics in everyday life.
The data showed that ALD-52, 1P-LSD, and 1B-LSD were very weak partial agonists at the human 5-HT2A compared to LSD.
Researchers isolate ayahuasca-like compounds known as ß-carbolines from several species of Psilocybe.
The data from the study will help generate hypotheses for future research.
“…the blue color is due to a heterogeneous mixture of quinoid psilocyl oligomers, primarily coupled via C-5."
This new solvate form opens to door to understanding its physical properties and testing its activity at biological receptors.
Anorexia has phenomenological parallels to anxiety and addiction, both of which have been shown to improve with psilocybin-assisted interventions.
The 1,000 year old ritual bundle was found in the Andes.
This new solvate of psilacetin could provide new properties like solubility, leading to new opportunities for formulating drugs.
These new compounds will give scientists a better understanding of how serotonin-based psychedelics work.
This is the crystal structure of the fumarate salt of psilacetin which was described by David Nichols and Steward Frescas of Purdue University in 1999.
Improvements in depression and anxiety are associated with greater intensity of mystical experiences and higher ratings of the spiritual significance and personal meaning.
Increased mindfulness and decreased anxiety, depression, and stress were seen right away, becoming more significant four weeks after dosing.
Researchers used PET scans, blood psilocin levels, and subjective effects to verify that psilocin binding to 5-HT2A receptors causes the psychedelic experience.
The new crystalline fumarate salts of MiPT and 4-HO-MiPT could be used to modulate the effects of compounds in a drug formulation.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted breakthrough designation for psilocybin-assisted therapy.
The UK life science company COMPASS Pathways receives FDA approval for a clinical trial using psilocybin to treat treatment-resistant depression.
Researchers find psilocybin in the animal kingdom for the first time.
COMPASS Pathways synthesizes 20,000 doses of psilocybin for use in clinical trials.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine call for psilocybin to be reclassified from a Schedule I controlled substance to Schedule IV after clearing phase III clinical trials.
Study Finds Natural Speech Analytics and AI Can Identify if Psilocybin Therapy Was Successful in Treating Depression
A study showed that natural speech analytics can tell if someone is depressed and if psilocybin was successful in treating their depression.
Four cancer patients treated with psilocybin-assisted therapy had different subjective experiences during their treatment, particularly with relation to their spiritual and/or psychological needs.
Using psilocybin, researchers determined that the altered information processing in the brains of people with psychosis and schizophrenia may be related to 5-hydroxytryptophan receptors.
Researchers find psilocybin improves the ability to process emotional faces and increases feelings of pleasure.
Study shows psilocybin produces greater "visual, mystical-type, insightful, and musical experiences" while dextromethorphan (DXM) causes greater feelings of disembodiment.
The NYU School of Medicine starts a clinical trial to assess the effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy on people with alcohol use disorder.
Researchers find gene clusters that suggest making psilocybin gave mushroom a fitness advantage in natural selection.
Preliminary study indicates patients using psilocybin to treat treatment-resistant depression are more in touch with nature and have fewer authoritarian political views.
Study finds that the quality of psychedelic experience from psilocybin can predict how effective therapy will be for a patient being treated for treatment-resistant depression.
Researchers determine that psilocybin is safe for use in people with mild to moderate renal impairment and doses up to 0.6 mg/kg result in no serious side effects.
A new test method is developed to detect and identify the DNA of Psilocybin cubensis.
Researchers successfully treat depressed patients with psilocybin-assisted therapy and can use responses from their amygdala to predict treatment success..
Researchers find that "bad trips" from psilocybin mushrooms may be caused by neuroticism.
Study Finds Psilocybin With Meditation Produces Long-Lasting Positive Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors
Researchers find that using meditation and other spiritual practices along with psilocybin produces long-lasting positive changes in psychological functioning and prosocial attitudes and behaviors.
A study further characterizes the four enzymes Psilocybe uses to make psilocybin and also finds a new class of Psilocybe enzyme.
Study finds that psilocybin enhances emotional empathy but not moral behavior.
German researchers identify norpsilocin, a new natural product of Psilocybe cubensis that comes from baeocystin.
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is a novel treatment package that combines psychotherapeutic techniques with three administrations of MDMA as a pharmacological adjunct.
Two dozen clergy members start taking controlled doses of psilocybin as part of a study conducted by Johns Hopkins University and New York University.
This structure reveals some reasons for the long-lasting effects of LSD and gives insight into the role of receptor signaling.
Researchers discuss how the body metabolizes psilocybin and review all the major and minor metabolites.
Study shows psilocybin used in conjunction with psychotherapy "produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological stress."
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine find psilocybin causes substantial and sustained decreases in anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer.
Researchers isolate 10 compounds from Psilocybe merdaria including two new ones.
UK researchers find from an open-label feasibility study that using psilocybin with psychological support is effective for treatment-resistant depression.
For the first time, researchers see the human brain under the influence of LSD using various state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques.
A study shows that psilocybin is associated with improving a person's mood and it does so by decreasing the activity of the amygdala.
The first proof-of-concept study is conducted examining psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcoholism.
Psilocybin disrupts the communication patterns in the brain, but there's still order.
Researchers conduct a safety/feasibility study using psilocybin as an adjunct for quitting smoking.
Study finds the fear response in mice goes away quicker on low doses of psilocybin compared to higher doses and the authors suggest exploring its use for treating PTSD and other conditions.
Researchers find that psilocybin changes blood flow, communication pathways, and activity in the brain, enabling "a state of unconstrained cognition."
A study from the University of Zurich finds several non-dosage related variables play a key role in the effects psilocybin has on humans.
This was the first completed clinical trial evaluating MDMA for use in therapy.
Pilot study finds that psilocybin reduces anxiety and improves mood in patients with advanced stage cancer and anxiety.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University find psilocybin-induced mystical experiences retained their meaning and significance 14 months after the study.
Researchers find psilocybin is safe, tolerable, and effective for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A study shows psilocybin gave study participants "experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences."
Survey results published in Neurology show both psilocybin-containing mushrooms and LSD may reduce severity and frequency of cluster headaches.
Its chemical structure is closely related to the frog skin toxin bufotenidine.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled study finds psilocybin has orderly dose- and time-dependent effects that begin about 20-40 minutes after ingestion, peak at 60-90 minutes, and diminish over the next 60-90 minutes.
The default mode network now serves as a baseline for studying brain function and how psychedelic drugs work.
Dr. Nichols presents the synthesis of the fumarate salt of psilacetin. This new method is easier and less expensive than synthesizing psilocybin.
An improved synthesis method for psilocybin is published.
Researchers find the psychosis produced from psilocybin in humans is due to activation of serotonin 2A receptors.
Swiss researchers suggest the psychosis induced by psilocybin can be used to study the role of the serotonin 2 receptor in schizophrenia.
Studies find four metabolites of psilocybin in human plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Researchers test the psychological effects of intravenously-administered DMT in healthy volunteers and find they begin almost immediately, peak at 90-120 seconds, and are almost completely resolved by 30 minutes.
The secretions of Bufo alvarius are toxic when taken orally but can be safely dried and smoked.
Researchers find 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor subtypes in the brain are an important component hallucinatory mechanism of action of LSD and other chemically similar hallucinogens.
Study finds the levels of psilocybin and psilocin in Psilocybe cubensis grown under controlled conditions increase with repeated harvests of the fruiting bodies and are predictable compared to samples from uncontrolled outside sources.
Researchers find the total psilocybin and psilocin levels in 20 species hallucinogenic mushrooms from the Pacific Northwest US to range from 0.1% to nearly 2.0% by dry weight.
Researchers synthesize baeocystin from 2-methyl-2-nitrophenol.
Researchers find baeocystin in three of 10 species of mushrooms from the US, Canada, Mexico, and Peru.
Researchers isolate and characterize baeocystin and norbaeocystin from Psilocybe baeocystis.
Researchers find psilocybin and psilocin sometimes act like serotonin but act against it at higher concentrations.
Study finds psilocybin and psilocin cause qualitative effects similar to mescaline, but that mescaline is longer lasting and less potent. The data also showed psilocin is more potent and shorter acting than psilocin.
The Good Friday Experiment finds that psilocybin can catalyze spiritual experiences in religious people.
Researchers study the effects mescaline and psilocybin have on spider web building.
Henri Michaux publishes a first-hand account of his experience taking "psilocybin prepared from Psilocybe mexicana."
The Harvard Psilocybin Project is founded by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert.
Albert Hofmann publishes the first synthesis of psilocybin.
Researchers at the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) find psilocybin effects begin 10-15 minutes after oral ingestion and produce effects similar to LSD.
Albert Hofmann isolates psilocybin and psilocin from mushrooms.
French researchers obtained crystalline psilocybin and very small amounts of psilocin from both the spores and sclerotia of Psilocybe mexicana.
The CIA starts Project MKUltra using human subjects to develop drugs and administration procedures to be used in interrogations.
This study may capture an early observation of the importance of the mystical experience in psychedelic therapy.
Richard Schultes publishes his thesis describing teonanacátl as a psilocybin mushroom.
Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD-25 for the first time while working at Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland.
Richard Schultes and Blas Pablo Reko collect psychoactive mushrooms from Mexico and take them to the herbarium at Harvard University.
Blas Pablo Reko confirms teonanacátl as a psilocybin mushroom, not peyote.
German chemist Richard Manske synthesizes DMT for the first time.
Ernst Spath is the first to synthesize mescaline.
Science magazine publishes a first-hand psilocybin experience written by a botanist calling himself "Mr. W."
American mycologist Franklin Sumner Earle is the first to collect Psilocybe cubensis in Cuba.
Dybowski and Landrin Isolate Ibogaine From Tabernanthe iboga
Dr. Everard Brande of London, England is the first to document the effects of psychedelic mushrooms on humans in a medical journal.
The Mixtec Mesoamerican Codex shows the ritual use of mushrooms by Mixtec gods.
Xochipilli statue depicting Psilocybe aztecorum is carved by Aztecs
Albertus Magnus advises people not to eat mushrooms in his treatise De vegetabilibus et plantis.
Psilocybe mushrooms are used in early Christian worship and Christian art.
Scholars believe that the ancient Greek Eleusinian Mystery initiations were centered around a species of Psilocybe.
Some scholars believe the ancient Egyptians grew psilocybin mushrooms on barley and that the Eye of Horus may have been the cap of an entheogenic mushroom.