The synthesis method represents the first meaningful access to these compounds for scientific research.
This is the first scientific evidence that anything but psilocybin or psilocin could potentially contribute to the pharmacology of magic mushrooms.
Baeocystin did not cause the head twitch response in mice, meaning it does not activate the 5-HT2A receptor.
UK Health Technology Assessment body raised questions over the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the drug.
Dr. Michael Mithoefer of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences will lead the center.
The scope and validity of the patent will depend on how x-ray diffraction data is interpreted.
The spiritual teacher and psychedelic researcher/advocate was 88 years old.
Tetrahydrocannabiphorol could account for the pharmacological properties of some cannabis varieties.
The authors say this work is “a significant step towards demonstrating the feasibility of industrial production of biologically-derived psilocybin.”
This study is focusing on the effects of psychedelics in everyday life.
Nasal spray formulations like this could offer precision dosing of a spectrum of psychedelic mushroom compounds to consumers.
The data showed that ALD-52, 1P-LSD, and 1B-LSD were very weak partial agonists at the human 5-HT2A compared to LSD.
Researchers isolate ayahuasca-like compounds known as ß-carbolines from several species of Psilocybe.
The data from the study will help generate hypotheses for future research.
“…the blue color is due to a heterogeneous mixture of quinoid psilocyl oligomers, primarily coupled via C-5."
This new solvate form opens to door to understanding its physical properties and testing its activity at biological receptors.
The distinguished psychedelic researcher Dr. Roland Griffiths is directing operations at the center.
Anorexia has phenomenological parallels to anxiety and addiction, both of which have been shown to improve with psilocybin-assisted interventions.
The effort was led by the group Decriminalize Nature Oakland.
The 1,000 year old ritual bundle was found in the Andes.
Personal use and possession of psilocybin mushrooms has become a low priority for Denver law enforcement.
This new solvate of psilacetin could provide new properties like solubility, leading to new opportunities for formulating drugs.
These new compounds will give scientists a better understanding of how serotonin-based psychedelics work.
The new Imperial Centre for Psychedelic Research is the first of its kind in the world.
This is the crystal structure of the fumarate salt of psilacetin which was described by David Nichols and Steward Frescas of Purdue University in 1999.
Improvements in depression and anxiety are associated with greater intensity of mystical experiences and higher ratings of the spiritual significance and personal meaning.
Increased mindfulness and decreased anxiety, depression, and stress were seen right away, becoming more significant four weeks after dosing.
The treatment is in the form of a nasal spray containing ketamine.
Researchers used PET scans, blood psilocin levels, and subjective effects to verify that psilocin binding to 5-HT2A receptors causes the psychedelic experience.
The new crystalline fumarate salts of MiPT and 4-HO-MiPT could be used to modulate the effects of compounds in a drug formulation.
German entrepreneur and investor Christian Angermayer creates Atai Life Sciences and raises $25 million to study the therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs on depression and other mental illnesses.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted breakthrough designation for psilocybin-assisted therapy.
The UK life science company COMPASS Pathways receives FDA approval for a clinical trial using psilocybin to treat treatment-resistant depression.
Researchers find psilocybin in the animal kingdom for the first time.
COMPASS Pathways synthesizes 20,000 doses of psilocybin for use in clinical trials.
Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug containing cannabidiol (CBD).
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine call for psilocybin to be reclassified from a Schedule I controlled substance to Schedule IV after clearing phase III clinical trials.
Food author Michael Pollan changes his mind and his life and puts psychedelics back in the spotlight.
Study Finds Natural Speech Analytics and AI Can Identify if Psilocybin Therapy Was Successful in Treating Depression
A study showed that natural speech analytics can tell if someone is depressed and if psilocybin was successful in treating their depression.
Four cancer patients treated with psilocybin-assisted therapy had different subjective experiences during their treatment, particularly with relation to their spiritual and/or psychological needs.
Using psilocybin, researchers determined that the altered information processing in the brains of people with psychosis and schizophrenia may be related to 5-hydroxytryptophan receptors.
Researchers find psilocybin improves the ability to process emotional faces and increases feelings of pleasure.
Study shows psilocybin produces greater "visual, mystical-type, insightful, and musical experiences" while dextromethorphan (DXM) causes greater feelings of disembodiment.
The NYU School of Medicine starts a clinical trial to assess the effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy on people with alcohol use disorder.
Researchers find gene clusters that suggest making psilocybin gave mushroom a fitness advantage in natural selection.
Preliminary study indicates patients using psilocybin to treat treatment-resistant depression are more in touch with nature and have fewer authoritarian political views.
Study finds that the quality of psychedelic experience from psilocybin can predict how effective therapy will be for a patient being treated for treatment-resistant depression.
Researchers determine that psilocybin is safe for use in people with mild to moderate renal impairment and doses up to 0.6 mg/kg result in no serious side effects.
A new test method is developed to detect and identify the DNA of Psilocybin cubensis.
Researchers successfully treat depressed patients with psilocybin-assisted therapy and can use responses from their amygdala to predict treatment success..
"The Healing Powers of LSD, MDMA, Psilocybin, and Ayahuasca"
Researchers find that "bad trips" from psilocybin mushrooms may be caused by neuroticism.
Study Finds Psilocybin With Meditation Produces Long-Lasting Positive Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors
Researchers find that using meditation and other spiritual practices along with psilocybin produces long-lasting positive changes in psychological functioning and prosocial attitudes and behaviors.
A study further characterizes the four enzymes Psilocybe uses to make psilocybin and also finds a new class of Psilocybe enzyme.
Study finds that psilocybin enhances emotional empathy but not moral behavior.
German researchers identify norpsilocin, a new natural product of Psilocybe cubensis that comes from baeocystin.
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is a novel treatment package that combines psychotherapeutic techniques with three administrations of MDMA as a pharmacological adjunct.
Two dozen clergy members start taking controlled doses of psilocybin as part of a study conducted by Johns Hopkins University and New York University.
This structure reveals some reasons for the long-lasting effects of LSD and gives insight into the role of receptor signaling.
Researchers discuss how the body metabolizes psilocybin and review all the major and minor metabolites.
Study shows psilocybin used in conjunction with psychotherapy "produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological stress."
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine find psilocybin causes substantial and sustained decreases in anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer.
The Detroit Entheogenic Conference is held.
The Telluride Mushroom Festival is held in Telluride, Colorado.
Researchers isolate 10 compounds from Psilocybe merdaria including two new ones.
UK researchers find from an open-label feasibility study that using psilocybin with psychological support is effective for treatment-resistant depression.
The 2016 Interdisciplinary Conference on Psychedelics Research (ICPR) is held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
For the first time, researchers see the human brain under the influence of LSD using various state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques.
Possession of psilocybin mushrooms is decriminalized in Austria.
A study shows that psilocybin is associated with improving a person's mood and it does so by decreasing the activity of the amygdala.
The Women & Entheogens Conference is held in Cleveland, OH.
The first annual Global 9/20 Psilocybin Mushroom Day of Action takes place.
Russia bans the Reddit website after a thread discusses how to grow psilocybin mushrooms.
The first proof-of-concept study is conducted examining psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcoholism.
Psilocybin disrupts the communication patterns in the brain, but there's still order.
Researchers conduct a safety/feasibility study using psilocybin as an adjunct for quitting smoking.
Study finds the fear response in mice goes away quicker on low doses of psilocybin compared to higher doses and the authors suggest exploring its use for treating PTSD and other conditions.
Washington Initiative 502 legalized marijuana use by adults age 21 and over.
Researchers find that psilocybin changes blood flow, communication pathways, and activity in the brain, enabling "a state of unconstrained cognition."
A study from the University of Zurich finds several non-dosage related variables play a key role in the effects psilocybin has on humans.
Fadiman's groundbreaking guide on psychedelics for spiritual, therapeutic, and problem-solving use.
This was the first completed clinical trial evaluating MDMA for use in therapy.
Pilot study finds that psilocybin reduces anxiety and improves mood in patients with advanced stage cancer and anxiety.
US Drug Enforcement Administration Puts 5-MeO-DMT on Schedule I.
Possession of up to 40 psilocybin mushrooms is decriminalized in the Czech Republic.
The Entheogenesis Australis Symposium is held at Melbourne University.
The Netherlands prohibits the possession of over 5.0 g of fresh or 0.5 g of dry psychoactive mushrooms.
New section added to the penal code in Finland prohibits growing or attempting to grow Psilocybe mushrooms.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University find psilocybin-induced mystical experiences retained their meaning and significance 14 months after the study.
Albert Hofmann dies.
Researchers find psilocybin is safe, tolerable, and effective for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A study shows psilocybin gave study participants "experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences."
Survey results published in Neurology show both psilocybin-containing mushrooms and LSD may reduce severity and frequency of cluster headaches.
Its chemical structure is closely related to the frog skin toxin bufotenidine.
Ireland makes unprepared psilocybin mushrooms illegal.
The new UK Drugs Act 2005 goes into effect, banning fresh psilocybin mushrooms.
New Mexico Court Rules Growing Psilocybin Mushrooms for Personal Use is Not Considered “Manufacturing of a Controlled Substance”
New Mexico court rules growing psilocybin mushrooms for personal use is not the same as "manufacturing of a controlled substance."
Double-blind, placebo-controlled study finds psilocybin has orderly dose- and time-dependent effects that begin about 20-40 minutes after ingestion, peak at 60-90 minutes, and diminish over the next 60-90 minutes.
Japanese government makes it illegal to use, produce, traffic, grow, and/or possess psilocybin mushrooms.
Possession and sale of unprepared psilocybin mushrooms become legal in the UK
Portugal's drug policy decriminalizes the possession of all drugs providing the amount possessed is no more than a 10-day supply.
Danish Ministry of Health makes growing, collecting, possession, sale, and processing of psilocybin mushrooms illegal.
The default mode network now serves as a baseline for studying brain function and how psychedelic drugs work.
Germany expands the scope of Executive Order 698 of 1993 to include more aspects of psilocybin mushrooms including seeds, spores, and cell cultures.
Dr. Nichols presents the synthesis of the fumarate salt of psilacetin. This new method is easier and less expensive than synthesizing psilocybin.
An improved synthesis method for psilocybin is published.
Researchers find the psychosis produced from psilocybin in humans is due to activation of serotonin 2A receptors.
The Foundation works to reform global drug policy and support scientific research into psychoactive substances.
Royal Decree in Belgium prohibits the possession and sale of hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Sweden adds Psilocybe semilanceata to their schedule I drug list as a narcotic.
Iowa Court Rules Florida v. Fiske Does Not Apply Because Defendant Knew Mushrooms Would Be Used to Make Psilocybin
Iowa Supreme Court rules that the State of Florida v Fiske does not apply in the case of a man who knew the mushrooms he picked were going to be used to make psilocybin.
Swiss researchers suggest the psychosis induced by psilocybin can be used to study the role of the serotonin 2 receptor in schizophrenia.
Alexander and Ann Shulgin publish "TiHKAL: The Continuation."
Paul Stamets publishes "Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World: An Identification Guide."
Timothy Leary dies at age 75.
Canada enacts the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act which places psilocybin and psilocin on their schedule III drug list.
Indiana Court Rules Florida v. Fiske Does Not Apply Because Defendant Knew Mushrooms Contained Psilocybin
Indiana Court of Appeals rules that Florida v. Fiske does not apply in the case of a man found with dried psilocybin mushrooms because the defendant knew they contained psilocybin.
Studies find four metabolites of psilocybin in human plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
The DEA executed search warrants and found a number of infractions in Shulgin's lab.
Researchers test the psychological effects of intravenously-administered DMT in healthy volunteers and find they begin almost immediately, peak at 90-120 seconds, and are almost completely resolved by 30 minutes.
The secretions of Bufo alvarius are toxic when taken orally but can be safely dried and smoked.
"The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge: A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution"
"Advancing studies on psilocybin for treatment of addictions and other mental disorders, with the highest standards of scientific research."
Germany enacts Executive Order 698 prohibiting the cultivation of psilocybin mushrooms.
Alexander and Ann Shulgin publish "PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story."
Mycology Research Center has DEA Registration Revoked for Letting Visitors Keep Psilocybin Mushrooms
A mushroom research center in Florida has its DEA license revoked for providing psilocybin mushrooms to unlicensed people.
US Drug Enforcement Agency places MDMA on Schedule I.
Researchers find 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor subtypes in the brain are an important component hallucinatory mechanism of action of LSD and other chemically similar hallucinogens.
The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies is founded.
Kansas Court Rules Mushrooms are ‘Containers’ for Psilocybin if the Defendant Knows the Mushrooms Contain Psilocybin
Kansas Court of Appeals rules that mushroom are containers for psilocybin if the defendant knows they contain psilocybin.
Howard Lotsof is awarded a US patent for "Rapid method for interrupting the narcotic addiction syndrome."
Ohio Court of Appeals says that indictments must specify the chemical psilocybin, not just the scientific name of the mushroom.
Washington Court Rules Florida v. Fiske Does Not Apply Because Mushrooms Can Be ‘Containers’ for Psilocybin
The Washington State Court of Appeals rules that mushrooms are "containers" of psilocybin, contrary to the ruling of the court in Florida v Fiske.
Mexican law prohibits psilocin and psilocybin.
Albert Most (aka Alfred Savinelli) describes how to collect and smoke the venom of Bufo alvarius.
Study finds the levels of psilocybin and psilocin in Psilocybe cubensis grown under controlled conditions increase with repeated harvests of the fruiting bodies and are predictable compared to samples from uncontrolled outside sources.
Researchers find the total psilocybin and psilocin levels in 20 species hallucinogenic mushrooms from the Pacific Northwest US to range from 0.1% to nearly 2.0% by dry weight.
The Illinois Appellate Court rules that living mushrooms can be considered containers for psilocybin.
Reflections on Sacred Drugs, Mysticism and Science
Researchers synthesize baeocystin from 2-methyl-2-nitrophenol.
Florida Court Rules Psilocybin Mushrooms Are Not a ‘Container’ for Psilocybin Based on How the Law is Written
Florida Supreme Court rules psilocybin mushrooms are not illegal because they can't be considered a "container" for psilocybin based on how the law is written.
Researchers find baeocystin in three of 10 species of mushrooms from the US, Canada, Mexico, and Peru.
Second International Conference on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
International Conference on Psychotropic Fungi held in Millersylvania, WA.
Terrence and Dennis McKenna publish "Psilocybin Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide "under the names O.T. Oss and O.N. Oeric.
US President Richard Nixon calls drug abuse in America "public enemy number one."
United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances lists psilocybin as a Schedule I drug.
The UK enacts the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, categorizing psilocybin as a Class A drug.
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is passed by the US Congress and psilocybin, LSD, and other hallucinogens are placed on Schedule I.
Researchers isolate and characterize baeocystin and norbaeocystin from Psilocybe baeocystis.
Staggers-Dodd bill is passed, banning the possession of psilocybin and psilocin in the US.
FDA bans the use of psilocybin and psilocin in human, in vitro, and animal testing.
France lists psilocybin mushrooms as a narcotic.
California outlaws LSD.
Andrew Weil and Joseph Russin write a scathing critique in the Harvard Crimson about Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert's work.
Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert are fired from Harvard.
Researchers find psilocybin and psilocin sometimes act like serotonin but act against it at higher concentrations.
Study finds psilocybin and psilocin cause qualitative effects similar to mescaline, but that mescaline is longer lasting and less potent. The data also showed psilocin is more potent and shorter acting than psilocin.
The Good Friday Experiment finds that psilocybin can catalyze spiritual experiences in religious people.
Researchers study the effects mescaline and psilocybin have on spider web building.
Timothy Leary first tries pure psilocybin.
Timothy Leary first ingests psilocybin-containing mushrooms in Cuernavaca, Mexico.
Henri Michaux publishes a first-hand account of his experience taking "psilocybin prepared from Psilocybe mexicana."
Sandoz Pharmaceutical starts manufacturing psilocybin in pill form.
The Harvard Psilocybin Project is founded by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert.
Albert Hofmann publishes the first synthesis of psilocybin.
Researchers at the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) find psilocybin effects begin 10-15 minutes after oral ingestion and produce effects similar to LSD.
Albert Hofmann isolates psilocybin and psilocin from mushrooms.
French researchers obtained crystalline psilocybin and very small amounts of psilocin from both the spores and sclerotia of Psilocybe mexicana.
LIFE magazine publishes an article by R. Gordon Wasson called "Seeking the Magic Mushroom."
Psychiatrist and researcher Humphry Osmond creates the term "psychedelic."
R. Gordon Wasson, his wife Valentina, and photographer Allan Richardson participate in a mushroom velada led by Maria Sabina.
BBC reporter Christopher Mayhew films his experience after taking mescaline.
Aldous Huxley's "The Doors of Perception" is Published
The CIA starts Project MKUltra using human subjects to develop drugs and administration procedures to be used in interrogations.
This study may capture an early observation of the importance of the mystical experience in psychedelic therapy.
Dr. Osmond treated over 2,000 alcoholic patients from 1954-1960 with a nearly 50% success rate.
Sandoz Laboratories markets LSD under the trade name Delysid.
Albert Hofmann self-tests LSD and rides his bicycle home, describing the trip as a "horror show."
Richard Schultes publishes his thesis describing teonanacátl as a psilocybin mushroom.
Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD-25 for the first time while working at Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland.
Richard Schultes and Blas Pablo Reko collect psychoactive mushrooms from Mexico and take them to the herbarium at Harvard University.
American anthropologist Jean Basset Johnson and his wife Irmgard Weitlaner become the first "modern" white people to witness a mushroom velada (healing ceremony) in Huautla, Mexico.
Blas Pablo Reko confirms teonanacátl as a psilocybin mushroom, not peyote.
German chemist Richard Manske synthesizes DMT for the first time.
Belgium prohibits the cultivation of hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Timothy Leary is born in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Ernst Spath is the first to synthesize mescaline.
Science magazine publishes a first-hand psilocybin experience written by a botanist calling himself "Mr. W."
Albert Hofmann is born in Baden, Switzerland.
American mycologist Franklin Sumner Earle is the first to collect Psilocybe cubensis in Cuba.
Dybowski and Landrin Isolate Ibogaine From Tabernanthe iboga
Lewis Carroll's book "Alice in Wonderland" is published.
Europeans discover the Xochipilli Prince of Flowers statue which has carvings of Psilocybe.
Dr. Everard Brande of London, England is the first to document the effects of psychedelic mushrooms on humans in a medical journal.
Dr. William Heberden writes in the Gentleman's Magazine about the behavior of a family after eating mushrooms.
Florentine Codex is Published and Contains Description of Aztecs Using Peyote and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
Spanish priest Bernardino de Sahagùn writes in the Florentine Codex about the Aztecs using peyote and hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Catholic priests punish native Mexicans for using entheogens.
Physician Pieter van Foreest describes the behavior of a woman after eating mushrooms.
The Codex Magliabecchiano is written and contains at least one illustration showing teonanacátl mushrooms.
The Mixtec Mesoamerican Codex shows the ritual use of mushrooms by Mixtec gods.
Xochipilli statue depicting Psilocybe aztecorum is carved by Aztecs
Albertus Magnus advises people not to eat mushrooms in his treatise De vegetabilibus et plantis.
Psilocybe mushrooms are used in early Christian worship and Christian art.
Chang Hua's "Record of Investigation of Things" (Po Wu Chih) describes what could be the use of hallucinogenic mushrooms during the Chin (Jin)Dynasty.
Scholars believe that the ancient Greek Eleusinian Mystery initiations were centered around a species of Psilocybe.
Some scholars believe the ancient Egyptians grew psilocybin mushrooms on barley and that the Eye of Horus may have been the cap of an entheogenic mushroom.
A mural in the Selva Pascuala cave near Villar del Humo, Spain depicts what researchers believe are Psilocybe hispanica mushrooms.
Cave art in Tassili n'Ajjer SE Algeria shows the oldest known petroglyphs of psychoactive mushrooms, specifically Psilocybe.