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## Physical meaning and consequences of the loop infrared divergences in global de Sitter space

Following Krotov and Polyakov [ Nucl. Phys. B849 410 (2011)], we show that in global de Sitter space its isometry is broken by the loop IR divergences for any invariant vacuum state of the massive scalars. We derive a kinetic equation in global de Sitter space that follows from the Dyson-Schwinger equation of the Schwinger-Keldysh diagrammatic technique in the IR limit and allows us to understand the physical meaning and consequences of the loop IR divergences. In many respects, the isometry breaking in global de Sitter space is similar to the one in the contracting Poincaré patch of de Sitter space. Hence, as a warm-up exercise we study the kinetic equation and properties of its solutions in the expanding and contracting Poincaré patches of de Sitter space. Quite unexpectedly, we find that under some initial conditions there is an explosive production of massive particles in the expanding Poincaré patch.

The workshop *Tropical Aspects in Geometry, Topology and Physics* was devoted to a wide discussion and exchange of ideas between the leading experts representing various points of view on the subject. The development of tropical geometry is based on deep links between problems in real and complex enumerative geometry, symplectic geometry, quantum fields theory, mirror symmetry, dynamical systems and other research areas. On the other hand, new interesting phenomena discovered in the framework of tropical geometry (like refined tropical enumerative invariants) pose the problem of a conceptual understanding of these phenomena in the “classical” geometry and mathematical physics.

Despite its long history and stunning experimental successes, the mathematical foundation of perturbative quantum field theory is still a subject of ongoing research.

This book aims at presenting some of the most recent advances in the field, and at reflecting the diversity of approaches and tools invented and currently employed.

Both leading experts and comparative newcomers to the field present their latest findings, helping readers to gain a better understanding of not only quantum but also classical field theories. Though the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and physicists alike, the focus is more on mathematical developments.

This volume consists of four parts: The first Part covers local aspects of perturbative quantum field theory, with an emphasis on the axiomatization of the algebra behind the operator product expansion. The second Part highlights Chern-Simons gauge theories, while the third examines (semi-)classical field theories. In closing, Part 4 addresses factorization homology and factorization algebras.

In this paper we introduce a notion of Feynman geometry on which quantum field theories could be properly defined. A strong Feynman geometry is a geometry when the vector space of A-infinity structures is nite dimensional. A weak Feynman geometry is a geometry when the vector space of A-infinity structures is innite dimensional while the relevant operators are of trace-class. We construct families of Feynman geometries with "continuum" as their limit.

We propose an ansatz which solves the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the real scalar fields in Poincare patch of de Sitter space in the IR limit. The Dyson-Schwinger equation for this ansatz reduces to the kinetic equation, if one considers scalar fields from the principal series. Solving the latter equation we show that under the adiabatic switching on and then off the coupling constant the Bunch-Davies vacuum relaxes in the future infinity to the state with the flat Gibbons-Hawking density of out-Jost harmonics on top of the corresponding de Sitter invariant out-vacuum.

A method based on the spectral analysis of thermowave oscillations formed under the effect of radiation of lasers operated in a periodic pulsed mode is developed for investigating the state of the interface of multilayered systems. The method is based on high sensitivity of the shape of the oscillating component of the pyrometric signal to adhesion characteristics of the phase interface. The shape of the signal is quantitatively estimated using the correlation coefficient (for a film–interface system) and the transfer function (for multilayered specimens).

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.